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Reserve Bank of Australia

The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) came into being on 14 January 1960 as Australia's central bank and banknote issuing authority, when the Reserve Bank Act 1959 removed the central banking functions from the Commonwealth Bank. The bank has the responsibility of providing services to the Government of Australia in addition to also providing services to other central banks and official institutions. It currently consists of the Payments System Board, which governs the payments system policy of the bank, and the Reserve Bank Board, which governs all other monetary and banking policies of the bank.

Articles by Reserve Bank of Australia

Regulators urge Australian institutions to adhere to the ISDA IBOR Fallbacks Protocol and Supplement

17 days ago

Regulators and industry are taking further steps to transition away from LIBOR, which is expected to
cease after the end of 2021. In particular, on Friday 9 October 2020 the International Swaps and
Derivatives Association (ISDA) announced that it will launch the 2020 IBOR Fallbacks Protocol and
associated Supplement to the 2006 ISDA Definitions on 23 October 2020. These are needed to
implement robust fall-back provisions for derivative contracts referencing key interbank offered rates
(IBORs), including the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). The protocol and supplement are informed
by extensive consultation with industry, including in Australia.

While the regulators welcome the

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor: Monetary Policy Decision

24 days ago

At its meeting today, the Board decided to maintain the current policy settings, including the targets
for the cash rate, the yield on 3-year Australian Government bonds, and the parameters for the expanded
Term Funding Facility.
The global economy is gradually recovering after a severe contraction due to the pandemic. However, the
recovery is uneven and its continuation is dependent on containment of the virus. While infection rates
have declined in some countries, they have increased in others. The recovery is most advanced in China,
where conditions have improved substantially over recent months. Globally, inflation remains very low
and below central bank targets.
Financial conditions remain accommodative around the world and supportive of

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Assessment of ASX Clearing and Settlement Facilities – October 2020

29 days ago

The Reserve Bank today released the October
2020 Assessment of the ASX Clearing and
Settlement Facilities. The Assessment concludes that ASX’s clearing and settlement (CS)
facilities ‘observed’ or ‘broadly observed’ all relevant requirements under the Reserve
Bank’s Financial Stability Standards (FSS) as at 30 June 2020, with the exception of the
standard relating to margin, which was rated as ‘partly observed’ in ASX Clear
(Futures), and the standard relating to operational risk, which was rated as ‘partly
observed’ in ASX Clear and ASX Settlement.

The Reserve Bank is responsible for the supervision of Australian-licensed CS facilities
focusing on the reduction of systemic

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ASIC and RBA announce expectations for CHESS replacement

29 days ago

ASIC and the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) (the regulators) have outlined their
expectations of ASX as it replaces the Clearing House Electronic Sub-register System
(CHESS). This follows the release today of the RBA’s 2020 Assessment of ASX
Clearing and Settlement Facilities.

The regulators expect ASX to replace CHESS as soon as this can be safely achieved by ASX
and users of CHESS. CHESS is a critical clearing and settlement (CS) system for the
Australian cash equity market. It contributes to investor confidence, the reduction of
systemic risk, and the performance and stability of the Australian financial system. The
importance of replacing CHESS in a safe and timely manner was

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Next Generation of Banknotes: Circulation Date for the New $100 Banknote

September 30, 2020

The Reserve Bank today announced the new $100 banknote will be released into general
circulation
on 29 October 2020. Existing $100 banknotes retain legal tender status and can
continue to be
used.

The new banknotes have been in production since mid-2019 and will soon be distributed
ahead of their
release into general circulation. With more than 400 million $100 banknotes in
circulation,
the release is a big logistical exercise. As with any new banknote it will take time for
them to be
widely available.

The new $100 banknote celebrates the contributions of two outstanding Australians,
Sir John Monash
and Dame Nellie Melba. Sir John Monash was

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor: Monetary Policy Decision

September 1, 2020

At its meeting today, the Board decided to maintain the targets for the cash rate and the yield on
3-year Australian Government bonds of 25 basis points. It also decided to increase the size of the
Term Funding Facility and make the facility available for longer.
Under the expanded Term Funding Facility, authorised deposit-taking institutions (ADIs) will have
access to additional funding, equivalent to 2 per cent of their outstanding credit, at a fixed
rate of 25 basis points for three years. ADIs will be able to draw on this extra funding up until
the end of June 2021. This extension will ensure that all ADIs continue to have access to the Term
Funding Facility after the end of September, when the window for drawings under the initial allowance

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Payments System Board Update: August 2020 Meeting

August 21, 2020

At its meeting today, the Payments System Board discussed a number of issues, including:
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Australian payments system. Payment system operators
and retail payment service providers have continued to cope well with the operational challenges posed
by the pandemic. Financial market infrastructures have also continued to perform well in recent
months.
The assessment of the ASX clearing and settlement facilities against the Bank’s Financial
Stability Standards. The Board approved the Bank’s 2020 assessment, which will be published after
it has been provided to the Treasurer and the Australian Securities and Investments Commission.
The Review of Retail Payments Regulation. While the Review remains on

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor: Monetary Policy Decision

August 4, 2020

At its meeting today, the Board decided to maintain the current policy settings, including the targets
for the cash rate and the yield on 3-year Australian Government bonds of 25 basis points.
The global economy is experiencing a severe contraction as countries seek to contain the coronavirus.
Even though the worst of this contraction has now passed, the outlook remains highly uncertain. The
recovery is expected to be only gradual and its shape is dependent on containment of the virus. While
infection rates have declined in some countries, they are still very high and rising in others.
International trade remains weak, although there has been a strong recovery in industrial activity in
China over recent months.
Globally, conditions in financial

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor: Monetary Policy Decision

July 7, 2020

At its meeting today, the Board decided to maintain the current policy settings, including the targets
for the cash rate and the yield on 3-year Australian Government bonds of 25 basis points.
The global economy has experienced a severe downturn as countries seek to contain the coronavirus. Many
people have lost their jobs and there has been a sharp rise in unemployment. Leading indicators have
generally picked up recently, suggesting the worst of the global economic contraction has now passed.
Despite this, the outlook remains uncertain and the recovery is expected to be bumpy and will depend
upon containment of the coronavirus. Over the past month, infection rates have declined in many
countries, but they are still very high and rising in others.

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Assessment of the Reserve Bank Information and Transfer System

June 12, 2020

The Reserve Bank today released the 2020
Assessment of the Reserve Bank Information and Transfer System
(RITS) against the Principles for Financial Market Infrastructures (PFMI). The Assessment concludes that
RITS ‘observed’ all relevant Principles as at 31 March 2020, other than Operational
Risk, which was rated as ‘broadly observed’.
RITS is Australia’s high-value payments system, which is used by banks and other approved
institutions to settle their payment obligations on a real-time gross settlement basis. The
Assessment was independently prepared by the Bank’s Payments Policy Department and endorsed by the
Payments System Board.
The Assessment discusses the Bank’s ongoing initiatives to support the

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor: Monetary Policy Decision

June 2, 2020

At its meeting today, the Board decided to maintain the current policy settings, including the targets
for the cash rate and the yield on 3-year Australian Government bonds of 25 basis points.
The global economy is experiencing a severe downturn as countries seek to contain the coronavirus. Many
people have lost their jobs and there has been a sharp rise in unemployment. Over the past month,
infection rates have declined in many countries and there has been some easing of restrictions on
activity. If this continues, a recovery in the global economy will get under way, supported by both the
large fiscal packages and the significant easing in monetary policies.
Globally, conditions in financial markets have continued to improve, although conditions in some

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Payments System Board Update: May 2020 Meeting

May 22, 2020

At its meeting today, the Payments System Board discussed a number of issues, including:
The implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for risk management by financial market
infrastructures (FMIs). Members considered that FMIs in Australia had generally performed well in light
of the operational and financial risk management challenges presented by the pandemic. The lessons
learned from this experience will be discussed in the Bank’s 2020 assessments of FMIs.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the retail payments system. Members considered that
retail payments providers have, to date, coped well with the altered operational arrangements and other
changes induced by the pandemic. The Board will continue to monitor changes in payment behaviour

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor: Monetary Policy Decision

May 5, 2020

At its meeting today, the Board decided to maintain the current policy settings, including the targets
for the cash rate and the yield on 3-year Australian Government bonds of 25 basis points.
The global economy is experiencing a severe downturn as countries seek to contain the coronavirus. Many
people have lost their jobs and a sharp rise in unemployment is occurring. At the same time, the
containment measures have reduced infection rates in a number of countries. If this continues, a
recovery in the global economy will start later this year, supported by both the large fiscal packages
and the significant easing in monetary policies.
Globally, financial markets are working more effectively than they were a month ago, although
conditions have

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Regulators Release Feedback on Financial Institutions’ Preparation for LIBOR Transition

April 8, 2020

ASIC has released feedback on responses to the ‘Dear CEO’ letter from selected major
Australian financial institutions, detailing their preparation for the end of London
Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) – an initiative supported by the Australian
Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA), and the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA).

The feedback highlights the need for all institutions to plan for LIBOR transition,
the aspects to consider in transition and the importance of addressing the related
issues early. To ensure a smooth transition, it is crucial that institutions in
Australia are well-prepared.

The regulators encourage all financial and

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor: Monetary Policy Decision

April 7, 2020

At its meeting today, the Board reaffirmed the targets for the cash rate and the yield on 3-year
Australian government bonds of 25 basis points, as well as the other elements of the package
announced on 19 March 2020.
The coronavirus remains first and foremost a very major public health issue, but it is also having very
significant effects on economies and financial systems around the world. Many countries are expected to
experience large economic contractions as a consequence of the public health response. Large increases
in unemployment are also expected. Once the virus is contained, a recovery in the global economy is
expected, with the recovery supported by both the large fiscal packages and the significant easing in
monetary policy that

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Review of Retail Payments Regulation – Postponement

March 25, 2020

In light of the current extraordinary circumstances associated with the impact of COVID-19, the
Reserve Bank is putting on hold the Review of Retail Payments Regulation that was announced on
29 November 2019.
Whereas the Bank had previously expected that the Review would be completed by late 2020,
we now expect that it will be completed in 2021. This decision is intended to reduce the demands on
industry stakeholders at a time when they are focused on dealing with the impact of COVID-19. Bank staff
will continue to do background work on the Review as resources permit and remain available to speak with
stakeholders as required.

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Reserve Bank of Australia and US Federal Reserve Announce Swap Arrangement

March 20, 2020

The Reserve Bank of Australia and the Federal Reserve will establish a temporary reciprocal currency
arrangement (swap line) for the provision of US dollar liquidity. The Federal Reserve will also
establish temporary arrangements with the Banco Central do Brasil, the Danmarks Nationalbank, the Bank
of Korea, the Banco de Mexico, the Norges Bank, the Reserve Bank of New Zealand, the Monetary Authority
of Singapore and the Sveriges Riksbank. These arrangements are designed to help lessen strains in global
US dollar funding markets.
The Federal Reserve also has standing US dollar swap lines with the Bank of Canada, the Bank of
England, the Bank of Japan, the European Central Bank and the Swiss National Bank.
The Reserve Bank of Australia and the Federal

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor: Monetary Policy Decision

March 19, 2020

The coronavirus is first and foremost a public health issue, but it is also having a very major impact
on the economy and the financial system. As the virus has spread, countries have restricted the movement
of people across borders and have implemented social distancing measures, including restricting
movements within countries and within cities. The result has been major disruptions to economic activity
across the world. This is likely to remain the case for some time yet as efforts continue to contain the
virus.
Financial market volatility has been very high. Equity prices have experienced large declines.
Government bond yields have declined to historic lows. However, the functioning of major government bond
markets has been impaired,

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor

March 16, 2020

As Australia’s financial system adjusts to the coronavirus (COVID-19), financial
regulators and the Australian Government are working closely together to help ensure
that Australia’s financial markets continue to operate effectively and that credit
is available to households and businesses. (Refer to earlier Council of Financial Regulators’ (CFR)
press release.)
Australia’s financial system is resilient and it is well placed to deal with the
effects of the coronavirus. At the same time, trading liquidity has deteriorated in some
markets.

In response, the Reserve Bank stands ready to purchase Australian government bonds in
the secondary market to support the smooth

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor: Monetary Policy Decision

March 3, 2020

At its meeting today, the Board decided to lower the cash rate by 25 basis points to
0.50 per cent. The Board took this decision to support the economy as it responds to the
global coronavirus outbreak.
The coronavirus has clouded the near-term outlook for the global economy and means that global growth
in the first half of 2020 will be lower than earlier expected. Prior to the outbreak, there were signs
that the slowdown in the global economy that started in 2018 was coming to an end. It is too early to
tell how persistent the effects of the coronavirus will be and at what point the global economy will
return to an improving path. Policy measures have been announced in several countries, including China,
which will help support growth. Inflation

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ISO 20022 Migration for the Australian Payments System – Conclusions Paper

February 26, 2020

The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) and the Australian Payments Council (APC) today released the
ISO
20022 Migration for the Australian Payments System – Conclusions Paper. This is the final paper
in a series of three papers aimed at assisting the industry to come to an agreement on key strategic
issues regarding the adoption of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 20022
messaging standards.
The Issues Paper
was published in April 2019 and sought views on the migration of messaging used in
some parts of the Australian payments system to the ISO 20022 messaging standard. The
Responses and
Options Paper was published in September 2019 and provided a summary of the responses received to the
Issues Paper and put forward

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Next Generation of Banknotes: $100 Design Reveal

February 23, 2020

The Reserve Bank today revealed the design of the new $100 banknote, which is the final
denomination to be redesigned as part of the Next Generation Banknote Program. The banknote will be
released into circulation in the second half of 2020.
As with the existing banknote, the new $100 features Sir John Monash and Dame Nellie Melba.
Governor Philip Lowe said, ‘Australians should feel proud of our banknotes. They are innovative
and contain world-leading security features that keep the banknotes secure. The new $100 banknote
celebrates the contributions that two outstanding Australians – Sir John Monash and Dame Nellie Melba –
made to our society.’
Sir John Monash was an engineer, soldier and civic leader. He was a significant figure in the

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Payments System Board Update: February 2020 Meeting

February 21, 2020

At its meeting today, the Payments System Board discussed a number of issues, including:
The results of the Bank’s 2019 Consumer Payments Survey. Members noted that the decline in the
use of cash for consumer payments had continued, with households increasingly choosing to use
electronic payment methods. At the same time, cash remains widely held for precautionary purposes and
some members of the community continue to make most of their payments in cash. The main findings of the
survey will be published in the March RBA Bulletin.
The Review of Retail Payments Regulation. The Bank has received around 50 written submissions in
response to the Issues Paper published in November. Bank staff will be meeting with stakeholders over
the coming weeks

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Renewal of Bilateral Local Currency Swap Agreement With Bank of Korea

February 6, 2020

Today, the Reserve Bank of Australia renewed the bilateral local currency swap agreement with the Bank
of Korea. The initial swap agreement between the two central banks was signed in 2014 and has been
renewed for three year periods since that time. The new agreement is for a further period of three years
and can be renewed again in the future by mutual consent of both sides. The new agreement allows for the
exchange of local currencies between the two central banks of up to A$12 billion or KRW
9.6 trillion.
This agreement is designed to promote bilateral trade for the economic development of the two
countries, to enhance financial stability and for other, mutually agreed, purposes. The agreement will
ensure that trade between the two

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor: Monetary Policy Decision

February 4, 2020

At its meeting today, the Board decided to leave the cash rate unchanged at
0.75 per cent.
The outlook for the global economy remains reasonable. There have been signs that the slowdown in
global growth that started in 2018 is coming to an end. Global growth is expected to be a little
stronger this year and next than it was last year and inflation remains low almost everywhere. One
continuing source of uncertainty, despite recent progress, is the trade and technology dispute between
the US and China, which has affected international trade flows and investment. Another source of
uncertainty is the coronavirus, which is having a significant effect on the Chinese economy at present.
It is too early to determine how long-lasting the impact will

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Review of Retail Payments Regulation – Issues Paper

November 28, 2019

Following discussion at the November meeting of the Payments System Board, the Bank has
released an
Issues Paper as the first stage of its Review of Retail Payments Regulation,
which will take
place over the coming year. The Issues Paper discusses and seeks stakeholder views on a
number of
potential issues that could be covered by the Review, including some recommendations
made in reports by
the Productivity Commission and the Black Economy Taskforce in relation to interchange
fees, merchant
service fees and least-cost routing of dual-network debit card transactions. The Issues
Paper also
discusses surcharging and ‘no-surcharge’ rules, and issues relating to

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34th South Pacific Central Bank Governors’ Meeting

November 22, 2019

The Reserve Bank of Australia hosted Governors from South Pacific Central Banks[1] on
19–20 November in Sydney on the occasion of the 34th South Pacific Central
Bank
Governors’ Meeting[2].

Following constructive and detailed discussions, Governors agreed the following:
as a collective, to prioritise an initial focus on a regional Know Your Customer
(KYC)
framework

this framework would cover governance, technical and legal requirements in each
jurisdiction

that the International Monetary Fund would perform the Secretariat role for the KYC work program
longer term, to seek service providers to operate within the framework.
The second day of the

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Next Generation of Banknotes: $20 Enters General Circulation

October 8, 2019

From tomorrow, people will begin seeing the new $20 as it enters general
circulation.

The $20 is the fourth denomination in the new series of banknotes that have been
released as part
of an upgrade to banknote security. It follows the release of the $5, $10 and $50 banknotes
over the past three years. The new $100 banknote is expected to be released in
2020.

Governor Philip Lowe said, ‘This is a fantastic new banknote, with world-leading
security
technology and iconic imagery. Among my favourite features are the top-to-bottom window
and the
kookaburra, whose wings move up and down as you tilt the banknote. It also provides a
great opportunity
to tell

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Statement by Philip Lowe, Governor: Monetary Policy Decision

October 1, 2019

At its meeting today, the Board decided to lower the cash rate by 25 basis points to 0.75 per cent.
While the outlook for the global economy remains reasonable, the risks are tilted to the downside. The
US–China trade and technology disputes are affecting international trade flows and investment as
businesses scale back spending plans because of the increased uncertainty. At the same time, in most
advanced economies, unemployment rates are low and wages growth has picked up, although inflation
remains low. In China, the authorities have taken further steps to support the economy, while continuing
to address risks in the financial system.
Interest rates are very low around the world and further monetary easing is widely expected, as central

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Assessment of ASX Clearing and Settlement Facilities – September 2019

September 24, 2019

The Reserve Bank today released the September
2019 Assessment of the ASX Clearing and Settlement Facilities. The Assessment concludes that
ASX’s clearing and settlement (CS) facilities ‘observed’ or ‘broadly
observed’ all relevant requirements under the Reserve Bank’s Financial
Stability Standards (FSS) as at 30 June 2019, with the exception of the standard relating to general
business risk, which was rated as ‘partly observed’ in each facility.
On balance, the Bank has concluded that the facilities have conducted their affairs in a way that
causes or promotes overall stability in the Australian financial system. However, the facilities will
need to place a high priority on addressing the recommendations related to general business risk. The

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