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Tag Archives: jobs

Central Bank Accountability, Independence, and Transparency

By Tobias Adrian and Ashraf Khan Español, Português In August 1694, the Bank of England opened for business with a staff of 19. The original Royal Charter, granted by King William and Queen Mary, tasked the Bank to “promote the public Good and Benefit of our People.” As a private company, its independence from the government was not then contemplated. Though it would eventually come—some 300 years later—when, in May 1997, the British government gave the Bank operational independence over...

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A Map of Inequality in Countries

By William Gbohoui, Raphael Lam, and Victor Lledo Social and economic inequality between and within regions in countries is rising in many advanced economies and is now at the forefront of the policy debate because of perceptions that some people and places have been left behind. Changes in global trade and technology have shifted jobs and industries on the map, but the economic gains within countries are not well shared. One might think the solution is for people to move in search of...

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Chart of the weekTrade Balances Mostly Driven by Economic Forces, Not Tariffs

By IMFBlog Español, Português Over the past two decades, most of the changes in bilateral trade balances—the difference in the value of exports and imports between two countries—were explained by macroeconomic factors, according to IMF research. These factors include fiscal policy, demographics, and weak domestic demand. They may also include exchange rate policies and domestic supply-side policies, like subsidies to state-owned enterprises or to export sectors. In contrast, changes in...

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Making the Euro Area More Resilient Before the Next Recession Hits

By Shekhar Aiyar, John Bluedorn, and Romain Duval Español, Français, Português Growth in the euro area rebounded earlier this year, but it remains fragile, while risks have increased. Now is a good time for euro area economies to strengthen their ability to weather any future economic difficulties. A new IMF staff paper looks at the resilience of euro area countries and finds that they have had more frequent and severe recessions than other advanced economies over the past 20 years. An...

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To Reduce Inequality, Employ Young People

Burcu Hacibedel and Priscilla Muthoora Español, Português Rising economic growth has reduced inequality in low-income and emerging market countries over the years. In good economic times, young people working helps reduce inequality in both groups of countries. But when growth slows down and jobs are lost, more young people out of work in low-income countries leads to a rise in inequality.  In emerging markets, the story is a bit different and we’ll explain why. The results in our...

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How to Help, Not Hinder Global Growth

By Christine Lagarde As the G-20 finance ministers and central bank governors gather this week in Fukuoka, they can take inspiration from their host city. Known as Japan’s “startup city,” Fukuoka has flourished in recent decades by embracing trade, innovation, and openness. That spirit is needed more than ever to help reduce trade tensions and clear other stumbling blocks on the way back to higher and more sustainable growth. The goal must be to help, not stand in the way of global growth....

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Designing Labor Policies to Foster Inclusive Growth in Emerging Markets

By Romain Duval and Prakash Loungani Emerging market economies have enjoyed good growth in recent decades but are still far from closing gaps in living standards with advanced economies. Emerging markets also need growth to be shared by everyone, particularly by providing their growing populations with good jobs and social protection. In a new IMF staff paper, we look at how the design of labor markets—institutions and policies—could foster inclusive growth in these countries.    ...

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Economic Forces, Not Tariffs, Drive Changes in Trade Balances

By Johannes Eugster, Florence Jaumotte, Margaux MacDonald, and Roberto Piazza عربي, 中文, Español, 日本語, Português New IMF research finds that macroeconomic factors, not tariffs, explain most of the changes in trade balances between two countries. Bilateral trade balances (the difference in the value of exports and imports between two countries) have come under scrutiny recently. Some policymakers are concerned that their large and rising size are the result of uneven measures that distort...

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Chart of the WeekChina’s Digital Dividend

By Longmei Zhang and Sally Chen Digitalization has created millions of new jobs in China, accounting for between one-third and one-half of employment growth in the world’s second-largest economy. Our Chart of the Week shows employment in two sectors: information and communications technology (ICT) and retailing. ICT added 14 million new jobs for high-skilled workers in the five years through 2016, and the average wage doubled. But ICT is just one part of a much larger picture. E-commerce...

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Unlimited Opportunities: Creating More Jobs for Young People in Emerging Market and Developing Economies

By Christine Lagarde and John Bluedorn عربي, Español,Français, Português, Русский “To define is to limit,” Oscar Wilde once said. But sometimes economists need to use definitions to see the scope of a problem and find ways to lift the limits to success. This is especially true for young people in emerging markets and developing economies. We know that young people are essential to economic development and growth. They make up approximately one-third of the working-age population in the...

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