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Tag Archives: Unemployment

Chart of the WeekThe Threat of Inequality of Opportunity

By Shekhar Aiyar and Christian Ebeke There are clashing views on the relationship between income inequality and growth. Some have pointed to at least some measure of inequality as a necessary outcome of the rewards to innovation and risk-taking. Others have argued that excessive income inequality depresses investment in both human and physical capital, two key sources of long-term growth. In recent research we argue that the crucial missing link in the inequality-growth relationship is...

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Chart of the week The Global Informal Economy: Large but On The Decline

By Thomas F. Alexander Español The informal economy, which is economic activity that falls outside the regulated economy and tax system, such as street vending or unregistered taxi drivers, is hard to measure. People and companies engaged in the informal economy usually operate on a small scale. This means there are no official statistics on the informal or shadow economy, as it’s sometimes called, so economists need to estimate its size. Some common techniques include surveys or indirect...

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Job Ladders and Careers

Fatih Karahan, Brendan Moore, and Serdar Ozkan Workers in the United States experience vast differences in lifetime earnings. Individuals in the 90th percentile earn around seven times more than those in the 10th percentile, and those in the top percentile earn almost twenty times more. A large share of these differences arise over the course of people’s careers. What accounts for these vastly different outcomes in the labor market? Why do some individuals experience much steeper...

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Just Released: Transitions to Unemployment Tick Up in Latest SCE Labor Market Survey

Gizem Kosar and Kyle Smith The Federal Reserve Bank of New York’s July 2019 SCE Labor Market Survey shows a year-over-year rise in employer-to-employer transitions as well as an increase in transitions into unemployment. Satisfaction with promotion opportunities and wage compensation was largely unchanged, while satisfaction with non-wage benefits retreated. Regarding expectations, the average expected wage offer (conditional on receiving one) and the average reservation wage—the...

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Outlook for Latin America and the Caribbean: A Stalling Recovery

By Alejandro Werner Español Economic activity in Latin America and the Caribbean remains sluggish. Real GDP is expected to grow by 0.6 percent in 2019—the slowest rate since 2016—before rising to 2.3 percent in 2020. The weak momentum reflects negative surprises in the first half of 2019, elevated domestic policy uncertainty in some large economies, heightened US-China trade tensions, and somewhat lower global growth. Elevated policy uncertainty in some large economies of the region has...

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Making the Euro Area More Resilient Before the Next Recession Hits

By Shekhar Aiyar, John Bluedorn, and Romain Duval Español, Français, Português Growth in the euro area rebounded earlier this year, but it remains fragile, while risks have increased. Now is a good time for euro area economies to strengthen their ability to weather any future economic difficulties. A new IMF staff paper looks at the resilience of euro area countries and finds that they have had more frequent and severe recessions than other advanced economies over the past 20 years. An...

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Designing Labor Policies to Foster Inclusive Growth in Emerging Markets

By Romain Duval and Prakash Loungani Emerging market economies have enjoyed good growth in recent decades but are still far from closing gaps in living standards with advanced economies. Emerging markets also need growth to be shared by everyone, particularly by providing their growing populations with good jobs and social protection. In a new IMF staff paper, we look at how the design of labor markets—institutions and policies—could foster inclusive growth in these countries.    ...

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Did Changes in Economic Expectations Foreshadow Swings in the 2018 Elections?

Olivier Armantier, Michael Neubauer, Daphne Skandalis, and Wilbert van der Klaauw Second of two posts In the months leading up to the 2018 midterm elections, were economic expectations in congressional districts about to elect a Republican similar to those in districts about to elect a Democrat? How did economic expectations evolve in districts where the party holding the House seat would switch? After examining the persistence of polarization in expectations...

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Just Released: The New York Fed’s New Regional Economy Website

Jaison R. Abel, Jason Bram, Richard Deitz, and Jonathan Hastings The New York Fed today unveiled a newly designed website on the regional economy that offers convenient access to a wide array of regional data, analysis, and research that the Bank makes available to the public. Focusing specifically on the Federal Reserve’s Second District, which includes New York State, Northern New Jersey, Southwestern Connecticut, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, the new site also features...

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Expecting the Unexpected: Job Losses and Household Spending

Fatih Karahan, Brendan Moore, and Laura Pilossoph Unemployment risk constitutes one of the most significant sources of uncertainty facing workers in the United States. A large body of work has carefully documented that job loss may have long-term effects on one’s career, depressing earnings by as much as 20 percent after fifteen to twenty years. Given the severity of a job loss for earnings, an important question is how much such an event affects one’s standard of living during a...

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